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Tumors of the thymus gland

and surgical methods of treatment

It is divided into several types:

A, AB, B1, B2, B3, C

The more you go with type A to C, the more aggressive the tumor

Type C is a rare malignant neoplasm of the mediastinum that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus gland. Sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques for thymic carcinoma include high-resolution radiography, selective angiography, and radioisotope scanning. The optimal type of surgical treatment is thymectomy, and radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy are used as additional therapeutic agents.  

Clinical symptoms of thymic tumors

 pain behind the sternum, feeling of heaviness in the chest, prolonged cough, shortness of breath with minimal physical exertion, muscle weakness in the upper half of the body; difficulty chewing and swallowing; Respiratory disorders (myasthenia gravis) Swelling of the face, hands and upper body. bluish complexion Aneurysms of the saphenous veins of the face, neck and chest (superior vena cava syndrome) Small tumors of low malignancy are usually discovered incidentally during examination

X-rays for other diseases of the chest organs




Magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the chest organs with the use of contrast material to assess the location of the tumor and detect infiltration into neighboring organs and damage to the lymph nodes. Alternative imaging techniques of the anterior mediastinum include X-ray imaging, mediastinography , and radioisotope scanning with gallium. Ultrasound of the supraclavicular region to assess the condition of the lymph nodes and adipose tissue. Examinations to assess the general condition of the patient: clinical blood test, biochemical blood test with assessment of kidney and liver function, blood coagulation, ECG, consultations of specialists in narrow fields.


When choosing a treatment technique, oncologists take into account the size of the tumor, the degree of its penetration into the surrounding organs, the presence of distant metastases, as well as the general condition of the patient. The main method of treatment is surgical removal of the tumor, to which, if necessary, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or the appointment of targeted drugs is added. Oncologists prefer surgery with tumors of small size and without signs of infiltration into other organs of the mediastinum - thymectomy or thymectomy. Both operations can be performed through the chest, with surgical instruments inserted through small holes in the chest, i.e. surgical excision by laparoscope. If a thoracic surgeon needs a larger surgical field, he uses open access 

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